maanantai 3. helmikuuta 2020

Creating your own physical or PDF manual

This post is part 2 of N describing the creation process of the Meson manual, which you can purchase via this web site. Part 1 can be read here.

There are three main ways of producing a technical book using only free software.

  1. LibreOffice + Scribus
  2. Libreoffice only
  3. LaTeX
The first option of these mimics the way traditional book publishers work. This is highly convenient when the final formatting is done by a dedicated person rather than the author. It is not so nice for solo operators, because migrating changes from LO to the Scribus program is tedious. So you either must only do the layout as the very final step or at some point switch to having the master data in Scribus and doing all edits directly there. These approaches are either cumbersome or require strong resolve to not keep changing the text after it has gone to the DTP program.

The second approach is easier, but the downside is that LibreOffice (or MS Office or other similar programs) do not produce documents that are as aesthetically pleasing as DTP programs. I don't know the specifics, but at least the line and page splitting algorithms seem to produce worse results. This is probably because they need to be fast enough to be used in real time. There are also various reliability and layout issues. For example it is difficult to get figures to remain where you want them as the text is edited, and I have experienced cases where entries in the bibliography disappear for no reason. Also, if you are not very pedantic in using styles, changing the global document appearance is problematic.

Enter LaTeX!

The Meson manual is written in LaTeX. It is a bit quirky, but there are many major features that other systems do not provide (or at least not easily). The main point is that in LaTeX you only write the structure of the document and the system takes care of all formatting, kind of like HTML and CSS work. The default look produced by LaTeX is magical in the way that it provides an air of gravitas to any piece of text automatically.

Splitting the style and formatting is nice in that you get to work in the "markdown" syntax level when editing but can easily see the typeset version of your text at any time. Since LaTeX is plain text, you can use revision control tools to manage your book sources just like source code. Some things that are difficult in GUI apps work effortlessly in LaTeX. Just the way it handles floating figures is great and saves you so much time and effort that it could be worth the price of admission by itself.

One of the big problems in writing a book about programming is to keep your code samples both up to date and working. LaTeX provides a simple and elegant solution to this problem. Since it is just a macro processing system, it provides a way to include text from standalone files on the file system. In the Meson manual all code samples are written in standalone projects and there is a script that builds and runs all of them. Or, in other words, with LaTeX you can write unit tests for your book.

The main downside of LaTeX is that its output looks exactly like LaTeX and if you want your book to look different, it takes a fair bit of work. The syntax takes a bit of getting used to and if your keyboard layout requires multiple keys to type a backslash, typing it can get tiring.  There are tools that can convert e.g. markdown to LaTeX to make the writing process easier, but usually you need to do some fine tuning on the output or use custom LaTeX packages to get the output you want

How many copies of the manual have been sold thus far?

31.

If you are a corporation and want to support the project by buying a bulk license for all your employees, send me an email.

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