Previously we have lookedbuilding the O3DE and Godot game engines with Meson. To keep with the trend let's now look at building the Unreal engine. Unfortunately, as Unreal is not open source, I can't give out any actual code. The license permits sharing snippets, though, so we're going to have to make do with those.
This post is just a very shallow look in the engine. It does not even attempt to be comprehensive, it just has a bunch of things that I noted along the way. You should especially note that I don't make any claims of fitness or quality of the implementation. Any such implications are the result of your own imagination. I used the release branch, which seems to contain UE4.
Before we begin
Let's get started with a trivia question: What major game engine was first shipped a commercial game that was built with Meson? Surprisingly the answer is Unreal Engine. Some years ago at a conference I was told that a game company made a multiplayer game with a dedicated Linux server (I don't know if users could run it or whether they only ran it in their own data centers). For the latter the development team ported the engine to build with Meson. They did it because Unreal's build tooling was, to paraphrase their words, not good.
Sadly I don't remember what title of the game actually was. If one of the readers of this post worked on the game, please add a comment below.
The Unreal build tool
Like most big projects, Unreal has created its own build tooling from scratch. It is basically written in C# and build definitions are C# source files with some functions that get invoked to define build targets and dependencies. The latter are defined as strings and presumably the build tool will parse all them out, convert them to a DAG and then invoke the compilations. This aspect is roughly similar to how tools like Bazel work.
The downside is that trying to reimplement this is challenging because you can't easily get things like compiler flags and defines that are used for the final compiler invocations. Most build systems use a backend like Make which makes it easy to run the commands in verbose mode and swipe all flags for a given source file. UBT does not do that, it invokes the compiler directly. Thus to get the compiler invocations you might run the tool (it ships as C# blob directly inside the repo) with --help. If you do this you'll discover that UBT does not have command line help at all. Determining whether you can get the actual compiler invocations would require either diving in UBT's source code or fiddling with strace. I chose not to and instead just went through the build definition files.
When you set up a build, UBT also creates Makefiles and a CMake project for you to use. They are actually not useful for building. The Makefile just calls UBT and the CMake definitions have one target with all the sources and all the flags. Presumably this is so that you get code completion for IDEs that support the compilation database Don't try to invoke the build, though. the Ninja file it generates has 14319 compilation commands whose command strings are 390 kB long each and one linker command that is 1.6 MB long.
No love for GCC
The engine can only be compiled with MSVC and Clang. There are no #error directives that would give meaningful errors for unsupported compilers, it just fails with undecipherable error messages. Here is an example:
# include <intrin.h>
# if defined(_M_ARM)
# include <armintr.h>
# elif defined(_M_ARM64)
# include <arm64intr.h>
This behaviour is, roughly, "if you are not compiling with Clang, inlude the Visual Studio intrinsic headers". If your toolchain is neither, interesting things happen.
UBT will in fact download a full prebuilt Clang toolchain that it uses to do the build. It is up to your own level of paranoia how good of an idea you think this is. I used system Clang instead, it seemed to work fine and was also a few releases newer.
The code is most definitely not warning-clean. When I got the core building started, Qt Creator compiled around ten files and reported some 3000 warnings. A lot of them are things like inconsistent overrides which could be fixed automatically with clang-tidy. (it is unclear whether UBT can be made to generate a compile_commands.json so you could actually run it, though). Once you disable all the noisy warnings (Professional driver. Closed circuit. Do not attempt!) all sorts of interesting things start showing up. Such as:
The engine has a lot of dependencies as could be expected. First I looked at how Zlib is built. Apparently with this shell script:
I chose not to examine how the remaining dependencies are built.
Internal dependencies and includes
The source code is divided up into separate logical subdirectories like Runtime, ThirdParty, Developer and Programs. This is a reasonable way of splitting up your code. The advantages are fairly obvious, but there are also downsides. There is code in the Runtime directory that depends on things in the Developer directory and vice versa. Similarly you need a lot of code to build things like UnrealHeaderTool in the Programs directory, but it is then used in Runtime directory for code generation.
This means that the dependencies between directories are circular and can go kinda wild. This is a common thing to happen in projects that use a string-based dependency matching. If you can use any dependency from anywhere then that is what people tend to do. For example the last time (which was, granted, years and years ago) I looked up how different directories depend on each other in Google's Abseil project, the end result looked a lot like the subway map of Tokio.
In Meson you can only refer to dependencies that have already been defined (as opposed to lazy evaluation that happens with strings) this issue does not arise but the downside is that you need to organize your source tree to make it possible.
Each "module" within those top level dirs has the same layout. There is a Public directory with headers, Private directory with the rest of the stuff and a build definition source. Thus they are isolated from each other, or at least most of the time. Typically you include things from public directories with something like #include<foo/foo.h>. This is not always the case, though. There are also includes like #include"FramePro.h" to include a file in Public/FramePro/Framepro.h, so just adding the Public dir is not enough. Sometimes developers have not even done that, but instead #include<Runtime/Launch/Resources/Version.h>. This means that in order to build you need to have the root directory of the entire engine's source tree in the header include path which means that any source file can include any header they want directly.
A big part of converting any project is getting all the #defines right. Unreal does not seem to generate a configuration header but will instead add all flags on the command line of the compiler. Unreal has a lot of defines including things like __UNREAL__, which is straight up undefined behaviour. All tokens starting with two underscores (or an underscore and a capital letter) are reserved for the toolchain. Developers are not allowed to use them.
Not having a configuration header and hiding the compiler command lines has its own set of problems. The code has proper visibility export macros so that, for example, all functions exported from the core library are tagged with CORE_API. If you try to grep for that token you'll find that it is not actually defined anywere. This leads to one of two possibilities, either the token is defined via magic macro expansion from a common definition "somewhere" or it is set on the command line. To get around this I added a -DCORE_API= argument to make it work. If that is how it is actually supposed to work then on Windows you'd need to set it to something like -DCORE_API=__declspec(dllexport). Just be sure to quote it properly when you do.
This is where my journey eventually ended. When building the header tool I got this error:
What this most likely means is that some define is either set when it should be unset, unset when it should be set or set to the wrong value.